Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects over 1,250,000 Americans who are at risk of developing microvascular and cardiovascular complications. The landmark DCCT study (1983-1993) demonstrated the benefits of intensive therapy aimed at near normal glycemia versus conventional therapy (as practiced in 1982) in reducing the risk of microvascular complications in 1,441 subjects with T1D over a mean follow-up of 6.5 years. The EDIC study (1994-present) is the observational follow-up study of the DCCT cohort. The overarching goal of the EDIC study is to continue to assess the long-term effects of intensive versus conventional therapy on microvascular and cardiovascular complications. The current phase of EDIC also focuses on the interaction between and the effects of aging and long-duration diabetes on cognitive and physical function as well as the long-term effects of diabetes-related complications on quality-of-life and health care costs.
The DCCT/EDIC Research Group (Writing Committee: Nathan DM, Bebu I, Hainsworth D, Klein R, Tamborlane W, Lorenzi G, Gubitosi-Klug R, Lachin JM). Frequency of evidence-based screening for retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2017, 376(16):1507-16. PMC5557280.
The DCCT/EDIC Research Group (Writing Committee: Orchard TJ, Nathan DM, Zinman B, Cleary P, Brillon D, Backlund JC, Lachin JM). Association between 7 years of intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes and long-term mortality. JAMA 2015, 313(1):45-53. PMC4306335.
The DCCT/EDIC Research Group (Writing Committee: Jacobson AM, Ryan CM, Cleary P, Waberski B, Burwood A, Weinger K, Bayless M, Dahms W, Silvers N, Harth J, Munsen G). Long-term effect of diabetes and its treatment on cognitive function. N Engl J Med 2007, 356(18):1842-1852. PMC2701294.
The DCCT/EDIC Research Group (Writing Committee: Nathan DM, Cleary PA, Backlund JY, Genuth SM, Lachin JM, Orchard TJ, Raskin P, Zinman B). Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med, 2005, 353(25):2643-2653. PMC2637991.
The DCCT/EDIC Research Group (Writing Committee: Lachin J, Genuth S, Nathan D, Davis M, Cleary P). Retinopathy and nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes four years after a trial of intensive therapy. N Engl J Med 2000, 342(6):381-389. PMC2630213.
The EDIC study has notably shown that the early beneficial effects of intensive versus conventional therapy on diabetes-related complications have persisted for more than 18 years despite similar HbA1c levels in the two groups during EDIC, termed metabolic memory. Former intensive therapy also greatly reduced the risk of cardiovascular events, advanced microvascular complications, such as chronic kidney disease and eye complications requiring surgery, and mortality.