Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG)

Antibacterial resistance is one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) emphasizes the development of better countermeasures against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The effort includes a diverse range of innovative, non-antibiotic approaches such as vaccines, bacteriophages (viruses that selectively kill bacteria), and approaches that alter a person’s microbiome to fight infection. The ARLG also supports improved diagnostic tests for identifying antibiotic-resistant microbes and provides support for research on optimizing the use of existing antibiotics. The ARLG has three scientific subcommittees: (1) Gram Positive, (2) Gram Negative, and (3) Diagnostic and Devices. The ARLG also highlights an Innovations Working Group and an active mentoring program for early-career researchers.


Scott Evans, PhD


Yunyun Jiang, PhD

Toshimitsu Hamasaki


Jordan Kahn, Lauren Komarow, Michelle Earley, Weixiao Dai


van Duin D, Arias CA, Komarow L, Chen L, Hanson B, Weston G, Cober E, Garner OB, Jacob JT, Satlin MJ, Fries BC, Garcia-Diaz J, Doi Y, Dhar S, Kaye KS, Earley M, Hujer AM, Hujer KM, Domitrovic TN, Shropshire W, Dinh A, Manca C, Luterbach C, Wang M, Paterson DL, Banerjee R, Patel R, Evans S, Hill C, Arias R, Chambers HF, Fowler Jr VG, Kreiswirth BN, Bonomo RA. Molecular and Clinical Epidemiology of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae. in the United States: a Prospective Cohort Study. Lancet Infectious Diseases. Forthcoming.

Doernberg SB, Komarow L, Tran TTT, Sund Z, Pandori MW, Jensen D, Tsalik EL, Deal CD, Chambers HF, Fowler Jr VG, Evans SR, Patel R, Klausner JD. A Master Protocol for Simultaneous Evaluation of Multiple Diagnostic Assays to Detect Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamidia trachomatis in Extragenital Sites: Master GC. Clin Infect Dis.; Forthcoming.

Doernberg SB, Tran TTT, Tong SYC, Paul M, Yahav D, Davis JS, Leibovici L, Boucher HW, Corey GR, Cosgrove SE, Chambers HF, Fowler VG, Evans SR, Holland TL. Good studies evaluate the disease while great studies evaluate the patient: Development and application of a Desirability of Outcome Ranking Endpoint for Staphylococcus Aureus Bloodstream Infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2018. PMID: 30321315 PMC Journal - In Process

Evans SR, Tran TTT, Hujer AM, Hill CB, Hujer KM, Mediavilla JR, Manca C, Domitrovic TN, Perez F, Farmer M, Pitzer KM, Wilson BM, Kreiswirth BN, Patel R, Jacobs MR, Chen L, Fowler Jr VG, Chambers HF, Bonomo RA; Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). Rapid Molecular Diagnostics to Inform Empiric Use of Ceftazidime/Avibactam and Ceftolozane/Tazobactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: PRIMERS IV. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;68(11):1823–30. PMID: 30239599 PMC Journal - In Process.

Lodise Jr TP, Rosenkranz SL, Finnemeyer M, Evans SR, Sims M, Zervos MJ, Creech CB, Patel PC, Keefer M, Riska P, Silveira FP, Scheetz M, Wunderink RG, Rodriguez M, Schrank J, Bleasdale SC, Schultz S, Barron M, Stapleton A, Wray D, Chambers HF, Fowler Jr VG, Holland TL. The Emperor’s New Clothes: Prospective Observational Evaluation of the Association between Initial Vancomycin Exposure and Failure Rates among Adult Hospitalized Patients with MRSA Bloodstream Infections (PROVIDE). Clin Inf. Dis. 2019 Jun 3. pii: ciz460. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz460

Jiang Y, Follmann D, Evans SR. Superbug Clinical Trials. Wiley StatsRef-Statistics Reference Online. 2019.

Stewart AG, Harris PNA, Chatfield M, Evans SR, van Duin D, Patterson DL. Modern clinician-initiated clinical trials to determine optimal therapy for multi-drug resistant Gram-negative infections. Clin Infect Dis.; Forthcoming.

Evans SR, Follmann D, Liu Y, Holland T, Doernberg SB, Rouphael N, Hamasaki T, Jiang Y, Lok JL, Tran TTT, Harris AD, Fowler, Jr. VG, Boucher H, Kreiswirth BN, Bonomo RA, van Duin D, Paterson DL, Chambers H. Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trials for COMparing Personalized Antibiotic StrategieS (SMART-COMPASS). Clin Infect Dis. 2019;68(11):1961–7. PMID: 30351426 PMC Journal - In Process

Liu Y, Tsalik EL, Jiang Y, Ko ER, Woods CW, Henao R, Evans SR. Average Weighted Accuracy (AWA): Pragmatic Analysis for a RADICAL Study. Clin Infect Dis.; Forthcoming

Patel R, Tsalik EL, Petzold E, Fowler Jr. VG, Klausner JD, Evans SR. Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). MASTERMIND: Bringing Microbial Diagnostics to the Clinic. Clin Infect Dis. 2017; 64(3):355-360. PMID: 27927867 PMCID: PMC5894935

Evans SR, Powers J. Evaluating Anti-Infective Drugs in the Resistant Pathogen Setting: Can we Use External Controls? Statistical communications in infectious diseases. Published Online: 2017-03-14 | DOI:

Chambers HF, Cross HR, Evans SR, Kreiswirth BN, Fowler VG Jr; Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group: Progress Report and Work in Progress. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Mar 15;64(suppl_1):S3-S7. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw824. PubMed PMID: 28350896.

Huvane J, Komarow L, Hill C, Tran TT, Pereira C, Rosenkranz SL, Finnemeyer M, Earley M, Jiang HJ, Wang R, Lok J, Evans SR; Statistical and Data Management Center of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). Fundamentals and Catalytic Innovation: The Statistical and Data Management Center of the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Mar 15;64(suppl_1):S18-S23. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw827. PubMed PMID: 28350899.

Evans SR, Follmann D. Using Outcomes to Analyze Patients Rather than Patients to Analyze Outcomes: A Step toward Pragmatism in Benefit:risk Evaluation. Statistics in Biopharmaceutical Research. 2016 December;8(4):386-393. doi: 10.1080/19466315.2016.1207561.

Evans SR, Pennello G, Pantoja-Galicia N, Jiang H, Hujer AM, Hujer KM, Manca C, Hill C, Jacobs MR, Chen L, Patel R, Kreiswirth BN, Bonomo RA; Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group. Benefit-risk Evaluation for Diagnostics: A Framework (BED-FRAME). Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 15;63(6):812-7. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw329. PubMed PMID: 27193750; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4996133.


Evans SR, Hujer AM, Jiang H, Hill CB, Hujer KM, Mediavilla JR, Manca C, Tran TT, Domitrovic TN, Higgins PG, Seifert H, Kreiswirth BN, Patel R, Jacobs MR, Chen L, Sampath R, Hall T, Marzan C, Fowler VG Jr, Chambers HF, Bonomo RA. Informing Antibiotic Treatment Decisions: Evaluating Rapid Molecular Diagnostics To Identify Susceptibility and Resistance to Carbapenems against Acinetobacter spp. in PRIMERS III. J Clin Microbiol. 2016 Dec 28;55(1):134-144. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01524-16. PubMed PMID: 27795336; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5228224.

Evans SR, Harris AD. Methods and issues in studies of CRE. Virulence. 2017 May 19;8(4):453-459. doi: 10.1080/21505594.2016.1213473. Epub 2016 Jul 28. PubMed PMID: 27470534. Patel R, Tsalik EL, Petzold E, Fowler VG Jr, Klausner JD, Evans S; Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). MASTERMIND: Bringing Microbial Diagnostics to the Clinic. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 1;64(3):355-360. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw788. PubMed PMID: 27927867.

Evans SR, Follmann D. Comment: Fundamentals and Innovation in Antibiotic Trials. Stat Biopharm Res. 2015;7(4):331-336. PubMed PMID: 27087893; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4831648. Evans SR, Rubin D, Follmann D, Pennello G, Huskins WC, Powers JH, Schoenfeld D, Chuang-Stein C, Cosgrove SE, Fowler VG Jr, Lautenbach E, Chambers HF. Desirability of Outcome Ranking (DOOR) and Response Adjusted for Duration of Antibiotic Risk (RADAR). Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Sep 1;61(5):800-6. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ495. PubMed PMID: 26113652; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4542892.

Evans SR, Hujer AM, Jiang H, Hujer KM, Hall T, Marzan C, Jacobs MR, Sampath R, Ecker DJ, Manca C, Chavda K, Zhang P, Fernandez H, Chen L, Mediavilla JR, Hill CB, Perez F, Caliendo AM, Fowler VG Jr, Chambers HF, Kreiswirth BN, Bonomo RA; Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group. Rapid Molecular Diagnostics, Antibiotic Treatment Decisions, and Developing Approaches to Inform Empiric Therapy: PRIMERS I and II. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 15;62(2):181-9. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ837. PubMed PMID: 26409063; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4690483.

Chambers HF, Bartlett JG, Bonomo RA, Chiou C, Cosgrove SE, Cross HR, Daum RS, Downing M, Evans SR, Knisely J, Kreiswirth BN, Lautenbach E, Mickley BS, Patel R, Pettigrew MM, Rodvold KA, Spellberg B, Fowler VG Jr. Antibacterial resistance leadership group: open for business. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jun;58(11):1571-6. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu132. Review. PubMed PMID: 24610430; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4017892

Huskins C, Fowler V, Evans SR. Adaptive Designs for Clinical Trials: Application to Healthcare Epidemiology Research. CID. 2018.

Van Duin D, Lok J, Earley M, Cober E, Richter S, Perez F, Salata R, Kalayjian R, Watkins R, Doi Y, Kaye K, Fowler V, Paterson D, Bonomo R, Evans SR. Colistin vs. Ceftazidime-avibactam in the Treatment of Infections due to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae, CID, 2017.

Project Overview:

The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) is an international cooperative clinical research network funded by NIAID to prioritize, design, and execute clinical research that will impact the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Funding Agency or Sponsor: